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A new study on the Norian/Rhaetian boundary sampled in sections located all over the world, from both Hemispheres
An international work group, which includes IGG researchers and professors associated with the Institute, has published a study on the Norian/Rhaetian boundary (Late Triassic) sampled in sections located all
over the world, from both Hemispheres. The turnover of ammnoids, conodonts, radiolarians, bivalves, coral reef, terrestrial and marine vertebrates is recorded across the limit. These changes in biota coincide with a strong variation in the isotopic composition of carbon which implies a strong perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system, probably linked to the emission of very large volumes of magmatic gases.
An article entitled "Estimation of natural asbestos content in rocks by fracture network modeling and petrographic characterization", has been recently published in Engineering Geology, issue 271. The article reports the results of a multidisciplinary research, carried out in consortium with the University of Turin, for the determination of the asbestos content in metamorphic rocks crossed by the excavation of the tunnel of the Gronda di Genova highway system.
A paper dealing with the formation of the High Atlas mountain belt in Morocco has been now published in the Journal of Structural Geology. It suggests a new interpretation of the structural evolution of the High Atlas characterized by a long history of transpressional and transtensional reactivations along a major lithospheric shear zone, since the break-up of Pangea.
Megathrusts are very large faults that allow one plate to overthrust another, accumulating much of the inter-plate displacement. They can generate very large earthquakes (Mw 8+) but if megathrusts are slipping too slowly or are sufficiently warm (>~300°C), they may creep without breaking.
A group of scientists from universities and research institutions from many different countries (Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand and United Kingdom) and coordinated by the Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources has shed new light into the recent evolution of the African rift valley and placed fundamental new constraints on how major sectors of continental rift valleys propagate, interact and link.
Samuele Agostini and Paolo Di Giuseppe (IGG-CNR, Pisa), along with Mehmet Yılmaz Savaşçın (Munzur University, Tunceli), Piero Manetti, and Sandro Conticelli (Università degli Studi, Firenze) have recently published a paper in the journal Lithos about the evolution of volcanism in Cappadocia (Turkey).
New article on Nature: CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle
A CaSiO3 perovskite-structured crystal enclosed in a South African natural diamond has been discovered and studied for the first time. The titanium rich composition of this inclusion indicates a bulk composition consistent with derivation from basaltic oceanic crust subducted to pressures equivalent to those present at the depths of the uppermost lower mantle (780 km). The relatively ‘heavy’ carbon isotopic composition of the surrounding diamond, together with the pristine high-pressure CaSiO3 structure, provides evidence for the recycling of oceanic crust and surficial carbon to lower-mantle depths.
IGG contributed to a review article, just published on The Cryosphere, on the state, trends and future challenges of the European mountain cryosphere, as a result of a specialized workshop that took place in Riederalp (Switzerland) in 2016.
The paper proposes a geothermal prospecting method to delimit closed thermal anomalies by using simple chemical/physical parameters measured in a shallow unconfined aquifer, by chance found to be thermally anomalous. The paper also suggests how to make a hierarchy of thermal manifestations in a territory and if they are originated by a low enthalpy or a high enthalpy deep geothermal system, accordingly.
The Ethiopian Rift Valley is a classic example of an area where a continent is splitting apart. Here, active volcanism, earthquakes and fracturing of the Earth's surface break continents and form new oceans. In this paper we analyze the shape and size of the faults and fractures combined with the relief and river drainage of the rift valley, in order to interpret which faults control the shape of the rift, and how they have evolved through time. We find that more than half of the rift is defined by a large fault escarpment along the eastern side of the rift, with the western side defined by a gradual slope (an asymmetric rift). Less than half is a “classical” rift with clear fault escarpments on both sides (a symmetric rift), and we find no evidence for the previously held view of progressive evolution from an asymmetric to symmetric rift. Instead, we find that the morphology of the rift is primarily controlled by the contrasting properties of the rocks beneath the two sides of the rift, with major fault escarpments forming only where the rocks are strong. Surface processes likely amplified the along-axis differences in rift architecture.
Full reference: Corti G., Molin P., Sembroni A., Bastow I.D., Keir D. (2018). Control of pre-rift lithospheric structure on the architecture and evolution of continental rifts: insights from the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa. Tectonics, 37, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017TC004799
The importance of these results, based on SIMS profiles of the 7Li/30Si ion ratio in plagioclase crystals from products of the paroxysmal sequence of Mt. Etna (period 2011–2013), relies on the application of methods, recently used exclusively for closedsystem volcanoes producing violent eruptions, to open-conduit systems that have generally quiet eruptive periods of activity, sometimes interrupted by sudden re-awakening and the production of anomalously energetic eruptions.
Seminar of Dr. Ciotoli "Influence of tectonics on global scale distribution of geological methane emissions"
On Thursday 28 of May at 11:00, Dr. Giancarlo Ciotoli of the Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (CNR-IGAG), will give a seminar...
Paper Invitation for the Minerals Special Issue on "Groundwater Geochemistry Environment, Exploration, Modeling"
The Guest Editors would like to cordially invite you to contribute with research paper or review to this Special Issue "Groundwater Geochemistry...
Seminar of Dr. Santinelli "La sostanza organica disciolta: una componente chiave del ciclo del carbonio in mare"
On Thursday 21 of May at 11:00, Dr. Chiara Santinelli, of the Institute of Biophysics (CNR-IBF), will give a seminar entitled: "La sostanza organica...
Study of «lockdown_Covid-19» effects on groundwater
The “lockdown" measures determined by the COVID-19 emergency also provided the stoppage of many productive activities, which rely on groundwater...
Sa.Pe.Vo. El Salvador mitigar Peligro Volcanico
The Sa.Pe.Vo. project is a product of the Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of CNR. The project team includes Unifi, Unipa, UNIRM1 and Universidad de El Salvador. The Italian Agency for International Cooperation has financed the project.
Geothermal ERA-NET Project
Geothermal ERA-NET is a European project co-funded for four years by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development 2007-2013.
Bilateral Project Italy-Taiwan
Geochemical tracers and indicators for the evaluation of geothermal resources is a Joint Research Project between National Council of Research of Italy and Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, funded for 2 years.
IGCP 663 - IM2LSC project
Land subsidence severely threatens most of the coastal plains around the world where high productive industrial and agricultural activities and urban centers are concentrated. Coastal subsidence damages infrastructures and exacerbates the effect of the sea‐level rise at regional scale. Although it is a well‐known process,
In the northern Adriatic Sea there are marine and coastal habitats that favor and support a significant animal and plant biodiversity, represented by the geo-biogenic outcrops of Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto, by the Cladocora caespitosa dead corallites on the Slovenian side, by the numerous coastal-littoral ZSC-ZPS.
Bilateral project Italy - China
Deltas, estuaries, lagoons form complex and highly fragile transition zones between river dominated lowlands and coastal marine systems. Such systems have proven to react sensitively to climate change and anthropogenic forces: the present morpho- hydro- geological setting and ecosystem of coastal systems result from human-induced processes superposed to the natural coastal zone evolution.
Venezia 2021 project
The loss of land elevation with respect to the mean sea level (relative sea level rise – RSLR) is one of the processes potentially more impacting flat low-lying coastlands. Today, a continuous updating of the knowledge on land subsidence is becoming even more necessary. This holds in particular for the Venice area where land subsidence is characterized by a significant variability because of the hydro-geo-morphological complexity typical of this transitional environment. Although land subsidence in the Venice coast does not peak to values recorded in other coastal areas worldwide, the process is here severely threatening the territory because of its very low elevation, which is generally below the mean sea level, and the peculiarity of the lagoon environment.
BRIC-INAIL Asbestos Call
The project “Crystallochemical characterization and study of surface reactivity of mineral fibres of environmental and health interest, for an accurate hazard analysis”, was financed in the frame of the “Bric” research funding program of INAIL - the Italian National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work.
The purpose of the "Scientific Research of Excellence", funded by the CARIPARO Foundation, is to support innovative research projects that help generate positive economic and social effects, promoting the advancement of scientific knowledge in the most diverse fields.
One of the most debated scientific aspects in relation to the impacts of global changes is whether, how and for how long transitional coastal environments such as lagoons, estuaries and deltas will be able to survive the expected Sea Level Rise (SLR).
Bilateral Project Italy - Morocco
The bilateral project aims to study the main fault systems of the High Atlas in Morocco, whose long history of activation in different geodynamic contexts characterized the overall evolution of the mountain belt. The Atlas orogen resulted from a long history of reactivations in alternating transtensional–transpressional tectonic regimes of lithospheric faults (Tizi n'Test fault system in the western High Atlas, South Meseta and South Atlas fault systems in the central High Atlas).