A recent study published in Scientific Reports shows that the approch based on the generalized Fluctuation–Dissipation Relation, complemented by the analysis of the Transfer Entropy, allows the causal links to be identifed between temperature, CO2 concentration and astronomical forcing during glacial cycles over the past 800,000 years based on Antarctic ice core records. The identification of cause-and-effect relationships from the analysis of paleoclimate records in fact represents a crucial step in identifying the main mechanisms operating in the climate system. 
Marco Baldovin, Fabio Cecconi, Antonello Provenzale & Angelo Vulpiani (2022). Extracting causation from millennial-scale climate fuctuations in the last 800 kyr. Scientific Reports (2022) 12:15320 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-18406-2
For more information: Antonello Provenzale (CNR-IGG) - antonello.provenzale(at)igg.cnr.it.