Studying gas exchange at the soil-atmosphere and water-atmosphere interface allows the understanding of many different processes occurring at the Earth's surface and below: from the endogenous emissions of gases in volcanic and geothermal areas to the carbon fluxes induced by vegetation and microbial activity in natural and cultivated soils, lakes and landfills.

The Institute of Geoscience and Earth Resources has developed and applied in-field measurement techniques to all such fields of investigation, starting in the 80’s with applications to emissions in volcanic and geothermal areas, and later to landfill and lacustrine gas emissions, developing measurement instrumentations and applying statistical, geostatistical and analytical techniques.

In the last  years, IGG researchers applied the closed dynamic accumulation chamber technique to the measurement of terrestrial ecosystems gas flux exchange in the Alpine and Arctic tundra, further refining the measurement protocol and the analytical technique for low-flux emissions and upgrading the instrumentation.

The present related research topics focus on:

  1. the characterization of geothermal and volcanic areas;
  2. the evolution of biochemical decomposition of waste for waste management, the reconstruction of the kinetic parameters of the decomposition processes and the estimation of total greenhouse gases output;
  3. the influence of biotic and abiotic variables on the bio-geochemical evolution of Alpine grasslands and Arctic tundra under climate and anthropic pressures.


The Laboratory is equipped with portable flux-metres for the detection of CO2, CH4, H2O, H2S, VOCs, field instrumentation for measuring meteorological parameters (air and soil temperature, solar irradiance, air relative humidity, soil humidity, air pressure), glass bottles for interstitial gas sampling.

The laboratory is also equipped with instrumentation for calibrating the flux measurement systems and it is involved in developing new analytical methods for sampling gas in complex matrices and at very low concentrations.

In detail, the available instruments are:

  • Two Flux metres equipped with sensors for CO2/H2O (LI-COR LI-840 CO2/H2O Gas Analyser), CH4 (IR based on tunable laser Diode), H2S (electro-chemical cell) and VOC (PID) determination;
  • A number of accumulation chambers of different volumes and shape in polycarbonate or methyl methacrylate (for Net Ecosystem Exchange), and steel (for Ecosystem Respiration, volcanic-geothermal areas, lakes, landfills);
  • Two meteorological stations equipped with radiometer and thermo-hygrometer;
  • Soil sensors for measuring soil temperature and relative humidity.

In addition, for the study of Alpine grasslands, a  Eddy Covariance tower (in 2019) and two automated flux chambers (in 2021) have been  installed at Col del Nivolet, (Gran Paradiso National Park, western Italian Alps) at 2700 m asl.

For the study of the Arctic tundra, a Eddy Covariance tower has been installed in the Bayelva basin near the Ny Alesund research station, Svalbard (NO).

The Eddy Covariance stations are both equipped with a Licor sensor for CO2/H2O measurement, a 3D sonic anemometer, sensors for air temperature, pressure and air relative humidity, and a sensor for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The one at Gran Paradiso NP is also equipped with a pluviometer. This station is part of the ICOS network (Station ID: IT-Niv).

In the frame of the PON-GRINT project, CZ investigation in an active volcanic setting was started in 2021 with the installation at Mt. Etna (Piano Bello area, Milo, 1200 m asl) of two automated flux chambers.

In April 2022, an Eddy Covariance tower will also be installed at Mt. Etna in the Piano Bello area.


Ilaria Baneschi, Ph. D., Technologist;

Maurizio Catania, Ph. D., Technician;

Simone D’Incecco (Ph.D Fellowship at IGG-CNR)

Mariasilvia Giamberini, M. Sc., Technician (Head of Lab);

Matteo Lelli, Ph. D., Researcher;

Marta Magnani, M. Sc., (PhD student at IGG-CNR);

Barbara Nisi, Ph. D., Researcher;

Angelica Parisi (Research Grant at IGG-CNR);

Maddalena Pennisi (Ph.D., Senior Research)

Antonello Provenzale, Ph. D., Research Director;

Brunella Raco, Ph. D., Researcher;


Mariasilvia Giamberini

phone: +393494947529


skype: silvia.giamberini

The “accumulation-chamber method”, also generally called “enclosure-based method” or “flux-chamber method”, is a widely used method for measuring gas fluxes between soil and atmosphere.

The method is based on measuring the temporally-varying concentration of the target gas (in this case, either CO2, CH4, H2S, VOC and/or water) in a small chamber connected to an infrared spectrophotometer (IRGA) or a conductivity cell for H2S.

The main features of such a method are the relatively low cost, the portability, the possibility to evaluate spatial variability and, for vegetation, to perform direct Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measurements (at daylight), and respiration measurements (using a dark chamber) during the day.

A few different configurations of the measuring device, and of the chamber in particular, have been developed by our lab for measuring soil-atmosphere gas exchanges with the flux chamber method (Parkinson, 1981; Norman, 1997; Pumpanen, 2004).

The static accumulation chamber technique has been originally conceived for measuring soil respiration; the quantity of the emitted CO2 was absorbed by a solution / sorbent placed inside the chamber. In this case, the sorbent (usually lime) is analysed when the vessel is placed on the ground and after a certain period of time. Nowadays, determination of emitted CO2 by lime absorption has been mostly replaced by the on-site analysis by an infrared gas analyser (IRGA), as such detection instruments have become portable, reliable and commercially available (Janssens and Ceulemans, 1998). The absorption technique is sometimes still used today because it is not expensive and is very accurate.

Modern closed dynamic systems recycle the air from the chamber to the analyser and back, and can monitor the change in concentration inside the chamber continuously. Portability and short measuring times in closed dynamic chambers allow the measurement of a high number of plots within a large area in a relatively short time (a few hours), and therefore the estimation of the heterogeneity of fluxes over the area. Most of the commercial systems are now based on the closed dynamic chamber technique (LI-COR, PPsystems, ADC).

In the closed-dynamic chamber configuration, the chamber isolates a portion of air above the measured plot, sealing the soil (usually using a collar) so that only the flux exchanges between soil/vegetation and the air inside the chamber can occur and air cannot flow from inside to outside the chamber and vice-versa. A small sample of air is pumped constantly to the IR gas analyser and then recycled inside the chamber. In the case of respiration measurements, when the target gas is emitted from the soil/vegetation, the concentration inside the chamber increases with time until saturation is reached and then the diffusion gradient becomes zero. The analysis of the concentration curve (calculation of the derivative of the curve for t->0) let us calculate the flux of the gas, which is obtained by solving the differential equation (here for CO2, but the same equation apply for other fluxes):

Where Hc is the height of the chamber, CO2(t) is the concentration of CO2 inside the chamber at time t and CO2(soil) is the concentration of CO2 in soil gas, considered constant. The solution of the differential equation brings to:

As shown by Chiodini et al. (Chiodini, 1998) the gas concentration inside the chamber is measured with time. The following assumptions are used for the numerical simulation of the measurement system:

  • Inside the accumulation chamber the mixing is complete;
  • The pressure inside the storage chamber does not change. This is ensured by the capillary tube at the top of the chamber;
  • The gas, transported by a small pump, circulates between the storage chamber and the non-dispersive IR instrument without altering the concentration inside the chamber.
  • The system is isothermal.

In practice, the gas flux can be derived as the slope (derivative) of the linear regression line (for low flow values) or as the slope of the linear regression over the initial part of the curve (for high flow values) of CO2 concentration variation over time inside the chamber, times the height of the chamber. In our lab, once the slope of the linear regression has been calculated, we use a calibration curve to relate it to the measured flux, in order to account for all the experimental deviations from the theoretical calculation. A similar solution can be derived in case of NEE measurements when Gross Primary Production (GPP) prevails over respiration.

This method is able to provide flux measurements from soils regardless of knowledge of the characteristics of the soils themselves and knowledge of the flow regime, and it does not require any empirical coefficient taking into account soil characteristics to transform the measured concentration gradient into a flux. Moreover, it is much faster than other enclosure-based methods, and the instrumentation is quite handy and easy to use.

While measuring the gas fluxes, other variables such as time of the day, GPS position, soil and air temperature, soil volumetric water content and solar irradiance can be simultaneously measured.  

The figure below shows how the measurements are performed in field.

Cited References

Chiodini G., Cioni R., Guidi M., Marini L., Raco B. (1998) Soil CO2 flux measurements in volcanic and geothermal areas, Applied Geochemistry, 13, 543-552.

Haber W. (1958). Ökologische Untersuchungen der Bodenatmung. Flora 146:109–157

Ivan A. Janssens, S. Têtè Barigah, Reinhart Ceulemans (1998). Soil CO2 efflux rates in different tropical vegetation types in French Guiana. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1998, 55 (6), pp.671-680.

J. M. Norman et al. (1997). A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. D24, pages 28,771-28,777, december 26, 1997.

Parkinson K.J. (1981) An improved method for measuring soil respiration in the field, J. Appl. Ecology, 18, 221-228.

Jukka Pumpanen et al. (2004). Comparison of different chamber techniques for measuring soil CO2 efflux, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123 (2004) 159–176.


Project “PON-GRINT” 2018-2022. The general objective of the PON project "Geoscience Research Infrastructure of Italy" (GRINT) is to strengthen the structures, resources and services connected to the implementation plan of the European Research Infrastructure (IR) European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and to define possible extensions of the offer of data, products and services, with particular reference to less developed regions.

Project PON-CIR01_00013-GRINT 2021. “Italian Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - Strengthening of human capital.

eLTER plus (INFRAIA-01-2018-2019 - HORIZON 2020; 2020 - 2025):

E-shape (EU Horizon 2020; 2019-2021):

Earth Critical Zone of Alpine Grasslands (2017- to date);

Earth Critical Zone of Arctic tundra  (ECZ@Bayelva - 2018- to date):

Geco– Geothermal Emission Control - (EU Horizon 2020):

GEMEx-Cooperation in Geothermal energy research Europe-Mexico for development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Superhot Geothermal Systems (2016-2019); 

ECOPOTENTIAL (EU Horizon 2020; 2015-2019):

Socompa project (2018): the project investigated the spatial distribution CO2 emission from soil in the area of Socompa volcano;

Project of Strategic Interest NextData (2013-2018);

Project  "CO2 - S- Pot '' funded by the DCO Deep Carbon Degassing (DECADE) iniziative, Carnegie Institution of Washington (2014-2015).

Project ERMAS – Monitoring and reduction of gas emissions from landfills, (2004-2005 - Regional Funding)

Project TRIAL MAX  -  Real Time transfer of gar emission data from landfills (2006-2007 – Regional Funding)

From 2001 to date, more than 10 monitoring and investigation projects regarding the spatial and temporal quantification of CO2 and CHgas emissions from landfill covers have been funded to IGG-CNR by waste facilities, environmental engineering, environmental consulting and technology transfer companies. Such projects were aimed either at optimising the collection of landfill gas and the energy production, at assessing the compliance towards the environmental legislation, at investigating contamination pathways and at remediation of landfill cover.   

Pubblications and Proceedings

A selection of publications on journals, books or conference proceedings is listed, divided by topic:

Bio-geochemical fluxes

Publications on Journals

Balzani, P., Masoni, A., Venturi, S., Frizzi, F., Bambi, M., Fani, R., Nisi, B., Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Zaccaroni, M., Santini G. 2022. CO

biogeochemical investigation and microbial characterization of red wood ant mounds in a Southern Europe montane forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry,

Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Brunella Raco, Antonello Provenzale, Microscale drivers of summer CO2 fluxes in the Svalbard High Arctic tundra, Scientific Reports, 12, 763 (2022);;

Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Pietro Mosca, Brunella Raco, Antonello Provenzale:  Drivers of carbon fluxes in Alpine tundra: a comparison of three empirical model approaches; Science of the Total Environment 732 (2020) 139139. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139139.

Conference Proceedings

Mariasilvia Giamberini, Ilaria Baneschi, Marta Magnani, Gianna Vivaldo, Antonello Provenzale, Arnon Karnieli, Antonio Monteiro, Manuel Salvoldi: “From Space down to the Tundra”, 3rd Svalbard Science Conference, Oslo, 2-3 Nov 2021:

Mariasilvia Giamberini, Ilaria Baneschi, Marta Magnani, Gianna Vivaldo, Antonello Provenzale: “Critical Zone in Critical Environments”, 3rd Svalbard Science Conference, Oslo, 2-3 Nov 2021:

Gianna Vivaldo, Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Virginia Boiani, Maurizio Catania, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Brunella Raco, Antonello Provenzale: “Understanding the dynamics of carbon dioxide fluxes in mountain grasslands: integration of eddy covariance and chamber CO2 measurements”, Advancing Critical Zone Science - 1st Ozcar-Tereno international conference, Strasburg, 5-8 October 2021.

Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Brunella Raco, Antonello Provenzale: “Modelling carbon dioxide fluxes in the Arctic Critical Zone: a data-driven approach”; Advancing Critical Zone Science - 1st Ozcar-Tereno international conference, Strasburg, 5-8 October 2021.

Magnani, M., Baneschi, I., Giamberini, M., and Provenzale, A.: “Drivers of carbon dioxide fluxes in high-Arctic tundra: data-driven models”, EGU General Assembly 2021, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5665,, 2021.

Mariasilvia Giamberini, Ilaria Baneschi, Matteo Lelli, Marta Magnani, Brunella Raco, Antonello Provenzale: “A Critical Zone Approach to Carbon Fluxes in the Arctic Tundra”; Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union EGU2020 – Volume 22.

Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Brunella Raco, Pietro Mosca, and Antonello Provenzale: “Drivers of carbon fluxes in high-altitude Alpine Critical Zone: a novel data-based model”; Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union EGU2020 – Volume 22.

Maria Silvia Giamberini, Marta Magnani, Pietro Mosca, Antonello Provenzale, and Brunella Raco: The Nivolet Critical Zone Observatory: exploring relationships between carbon fluxes and geology;  Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union EGU2019 – Volume 21.

Marta Magnani, Ilaria Baneschi, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Pietro Mosca, and Antonello Provenzale: Modelling high-altitude Critical Zone in Alpine meadows; Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union EGU2019 – Volume 21.

Antonello Provenzale, Ilaria Baneschi, Stefano Ferraris, Mariasilvia Giamberini, Massimo Guidi, Pietro Mosca, Elisa Palazzi, Maddalena Pennisi, and Brunella Raco: Carbon fluxes in high-altitude prairies: results from the Critical Zone Observatory at Nivolet; Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union EGU2018 – Volume 20.

Baneschi, Cerrato, Ferraris, Giamberini, Imperio, Provenzale, Viterbi: Changes in Alpine grassland of Grand Paradiso National Park (Italy): first results from CO2 fluxes monitoring programme, in: 6th International Symposium for Research in Protected Areas,  2017 (6th International Symposium for Research in Protected Areas, Salzburg (AT), 2017).

Provenzale A., Beierkuhnlein C., Giamberini S., Pennisi M., Puglisi G. Volcanic supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories. 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017, proceedings from the conference held 23-28 April, 2017 in Vienna, Austria., p.10277

Pennisi M., Baneschi I., D’Incecco S., Lelli M., Provenzale A., Raco B. Investigating the carbon biogeochemical cycle at Mt Etna. Accepted for EGU 2022

Loni T., Baneschi I., Guidi M. (2013). Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from temperate wetlands: the case of Lake Massaciuccoli (Tuscany). FIST Geoitalia 2013, Epitome 2013: pagina 204 (Oral Session) ISSN 1972-1552.

Geothermal and Volcanic areas:

Publications on Journals

Cabassi, J., Venturi, S., Di Bernardo, F., Nisi, B., Tassi, F., Magi, F., Ricci, A., Picchi, G., Vaselli, O. 2021. Flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the geothermal area of “Le Biancane” natural park (Monterotondo Marittimo, Grosseto, Italy): biogeochemical processes controlling GEM emission. Geochemical Exploration, 228, 106824, https://

Taussi M., Nisi B., Vaselli O., Maza S., Morata D., Renzulli A., 2021. Soil CO2

and temperature from a new geothermal area in the Cordon de Inacaliri Volcanic Complex (Northen Chile). Geothermics Volume 89, January 2021, 101961.

Eugenio Trumpy, Ilaria Baneschi, Fausto Batini, Gabriele Bicocchi, Marco Bonini, Serena Botteghi, Andrea Brogi, Andrea Dini, Gianluca Gola, Laurent Jeannin, Matteo Lelli, Domenico Liotta, Francesco Norelli, Adele Manzella, Domenico Montanari, Giordano Montegrossi, Andrea Orlando, Brunella Raco, Alessandro Ronconi, Giovanni Ruggieri, Alessandro Santilano, Christine Souque, Chiara Boschi 2020. Geological Assessment of Castelnuovo (Italy) Demonstration Site for CO2 Reinjection in Deep Geothermal Reservoir. H2020 GECO Project. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2020+1 Reykjavik, Iceland,

Taussi, M., Nisi, B., Pizarro, M., Morata D., Veloso A.E., Volpi G., Vaselli, O., Renzulli, A. (2019). Sealing capacity of clay-cap units above the Cerro Pabellón hidden geothermal system (northern Chile) derived by soil CO2 flux and temperature measurements.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 384, pp. 1-14. (IF:2.617).

Cardellini C., Chiodini G., Frondini F., Avino R., Bagnato E., Caliro S., Lelli M., Rosiello A. (2017). Monitoring diffuse volcanic degassing during volcanic unrests: the case of Campi Flegrei (Italy). Scientific reports 7 (1), 1-15.

Elío J., Ortega M.F., Nisi B., Mazadiego L.F., Vaselli O., Caballero J., Chacón E. (2016). A multi-statistical approach for estimating the total output of CO2 from diffuse soil degassing by the accumulation chamber method. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 47, 351–363. (IF: 4.078).

Elio J., Ortega M. F., Nisi B., Mazadiego L.F, Vaselli O., Caballero J., Grandia F. (2015). CO2 and Rn degassing from the natural analogue of Campo de Calatrava (Spain): implications for monitoring of CO2 storage sites. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 32; 1-14. (IF: 4.078).

Nisi B., Vaselli O., Tassi F., Elio J., Ortega M., Caballero J., Rappuoli D., Mazadiego L.F. 2014. Origin of the gases released from the Acqua Passante and Ermeta wells (Mt. Amiata, central Italy) and possible environmental implications for their closure. Annals of Geophysics, 57, 4, 2014, S0438; doi:10.4401/ag-6584. (IF: 1.205).

Raco B. (1998). CO2 flux from soil: fundamental parameters and its applicability to volcanic surveillance. PLINIUS,19,pp 208-213.

G. Chiodini, F. Frondini, B. Raco. (1996). Diffuse emission of CO2 from the Fossa crater, Vulcano Island (Italy). Bull Volcanol, 58,41-50.

Chiodini G., Cioni R., Di Paola G.M., Dotsika E., Fytikas M., Guidi M., Leonis C., Lyberopoulou V., Magro G., Marini L., Meletidis S., Michelot J.L., Poutoukis D., Raco B., Russo M., Virgili G  (1996). Geochemistry of Santorini fluid.  In “The European laboratory volcanoes'. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop, Santorini, Greece,  pp 2-4.

Chiodini G., Cioni R.,  Marini L., Raco B., Taddeucci G. (1993). CO2 in soil gases (Session: "Etna: gas geochemistry"), Acta Vulcanologica, 3, pp 315-316.

Books, monographs and book chapters

Alejandro Conde Serra, Raúl E Seggiaro, Facundo D Apaza, Silvia E Castro Godoy, Cintia Marquetti, Santiago Masa, Guillermo Cozzi, Matteo Lelli, Brunella Raco, Liliana Guevara, Noelia Carrizo, Diego Azcurra, Federico F Carballo 2020. Modelo Conceptual Geotermico Preliminar del Volcán Socompa, Departamento de los Andes, Provincia de Salta, Argentina. Ed. Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino. Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. Serie Contribuciones Técnicas Geotermia N° 2, 92 pp. Buenos Aires.

Elio J., Ortega M.F., Mazadiego L.F., Nisi B., Vaselli O., Garcia-Martinez M.J. 2016. Monitoring of Soil Gases in the Characterization Stage of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers and Possible Effects of CO2 Leakages in the Groundwater System. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 V. Vishal, T.N. Sing (eds.), Geologic Carbon Sequestration  DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-27019-7_5. ISBN 978-3-319-27017-3. ISBN 978-3-319-27019-7 (e Book).

Biochemical decomposition of waste

Publications on Journals

Battaglini, R., Raco, B., Scozzari, A. (2013). Effective monitoring of landfills: Flux measurements and thermography enhance efficiency and reduce environmental impact. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 10 (6), art. no. 064002. IF 0.895; SCIMAGO 0.54; HI 21

Raco, B., Dotsika, E., Battaglini, R., Bulleri, E., Doveri, M., Papakostantinou, K. (2013). A quick and reliable method to detect and quantify contamination from MSW landfills: A case study. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (3). IF 1.551; SCIMAGO 0.63; HI 80

Raco, B., Battaglini, R., Lelli, M. (2010). Gas emission into the atmosphere from controlled landfills: An example from Legoli landfill (Tuscany, Italy). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17 (6), pp. 1197-1206. IF 2.76; SCIMAGO 0.886; HI 59

Conference proceedings

Eleazar Padrón, María Asensio-Ramos, Nemesio M Pérez, Daniel Di Nardo, Violeta T Albertos-Blanchard, Mar Alonso, Franco Tassi, Brunella Raco, Dina López (2020) Methane emission to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 5651.

David Calvo, María Asensio-Ramos, Laura Acosta, Mar Alonso, Cecilia Morales, Violeta T Albertos-Blanchard, Cecilia Amonte, Fátima Rodríguez, José Barrancos, Gladys V Melián, Eleazar Padrón, Erica Pérez, Franco Tassi, Brunella Raco, Dina López, Pedro A Hernández, Nemesio M Pérez (2019). Evaluating the estimated methane emission into the atmosphere by landfills in Spain. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 21.

Andrea Scozzari, Giulio Masetti, Brunella Raco, Raffaele Battaglini (2017). How the availability of free satellite data can improve the observation of critical infrastructures: a proposed application to landfills for municipal solid wastes. EGUGA, 9072

Scozzari A., Raco B., Battaglini R. (2016). Landfills as critical infrastructures: analysis of observational datasets after 12 years of non-invasive monitoring, EGU General Assembly, 18, 16643.

Scozzari, A., Raco, B., Battaglini, R. (2014). Landfills as critical infrastructures: synergy between non-invasive monitoring technologies, EGU General Assembly, 16, pp 9343,

Scozzari A., Raco B., Lelli M., Lippo G. (2006). Interaction of MSW landfills with the atmosphere: measurement experience and results. EGU- General Assembly 2006 – Geophysical Research Abstracts , 8, 03730.

Raco B., Scozzari A., Guidi M.,  Lelli M., Lippo G.(2005) Comparison of two non-invasive methodologies to monitor diffuse biogas emissions from MSW landfills soil: a case study. Proc. of the 10th Int. Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. SARDINIA 2005.

Cioni R., Guidi M., Raco B., Giamberini S., and Daddi P. (2003). Measurement of biogas emissions from air-soil interface in the MSW landfill of Legoli (Pisa, Italy). Proc. of the Ninth Int. Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. SARDINIA 2003

Cioni R., Guidi M., Raco B., Guercio M., Corsi R. (2002). CO2 flux from soil: a methodology to estimate the diffuse biogas. Proc. of the 7th Int. Symp. on Environmental Issue and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production, pp163-174.

Books, monographs and book chapters

Manetti, Piero & Raco, Brunella. (2008). Il monitoraggio delle discariche RSU come strumento nella valutazione di impatto ambientale. Giornale di Geologia Applicata, 9, 1.

Analytical Methods

M .Lelli, B. Raco: A reliable and effective methodology to monitor CO2 flux from soil: The case of Lipari Island (Sicily, Italy) (2017) Applied Geochemistry, Volume 85, Part A, October 2017, Pages 73-85

E. Giovenali, l. Coppo, g. Virgili, d. Continanza, i. Minardi, Raco B. (2013). The flux-meter: implementation of a portable integrated instrumentation for the measurement of CO2 and CH4 diffuse flux from landfill soil cover. Proceedings Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 30 September – 4 October 2013 2013 by CISA Publisher, Italy

Chiodini G., Cioni R., Guidi M., Marini L., Raco B. (1998) Soil CO2 flux measurements in volcanic and geothermal areas, Applied Geochemistry, 13, 543-552.